Anthocyanins (AC) are water-soluble natural pigments found in various parts of higher plants. Despite their limited oral bioavailability and very low post-absorption plasma concentrations, the dietary consumption of these pigments has been proposed to be associated with a significant protection against several human pathological conditions, including cardiovascular diseases. Many studies highlighted that some health benefits of AC localize in particular at endothelium level, contributing to vascular homeostasis and also to the control of angiogenesis, inflammation, and platelet aggregation. This review reports and comments on the large existing literature addressing the molecular mechanisms that, beyond the antioxidant properties, may have a significant role in the effects of AC and AC-rich foods on vessel endothelium. Among these, AC have been reported to prevent peroxynitrite-mediated endothelial dysfunction in endothelial cells (ECs), thanks to their capability to modulate the expression and activity of several enzymes involved in NO metabolism. Furthermore, evidence indicates that AC can prevent the expression of adhesion molecules and the adhesion of monocytes to ECs challenged by pro-inflammatory agents. Overall, the activity of AC could be associated with the ability to elicit cell adaptive responses involving the transcription factor Nrf2 by affecting the "nucleophilic tone" of the organism. This review confirms the importance of specific nutritional molecules for human health and suggests new avenues for nutrition-based interventions to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in the population.
|Autori:||Speciale, A.;Cimino, F.;Saija, A.;Canali, R.;Virgili, F.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2014|
|Titolo:||Bioavailability and molecular activities of anthocyanins as modulators of endothelial function.|
|Rivista:||GENES AND NUTRITION|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|