Control of Pome and Stone Fruit Virus Diseases Many different systemic pathogens, including viruses, affect pome and stone fruits causing diseases with adverse effects in orchards worldwide. The significance of diseases caused by these pathogens on tree health and fruit shape and quality has resulted in the imposition of control measures both nationally and internationally. Control measures depend on the identification of diseases and their etiological agents. Diagnosis is the most important aspect of controlling fruit plant viruses. Early detection of viruses in fruit trees or in the propagative material is a prerequisite for their control and to guarantee a sustainable agriculture. Many quarantine programs are in place to reduce spread of viruses among countries during international exchange of germplasm. All these phytosanitary measures are overseen by governments based on agreements produced by international organizations. Also certification schemes applied to fruit trees allow the production of planting material of known variety and plant health status for local growers by controlling the propagation of pathogen-tested mother plants. They ensure to obtain propagative material not only free of “quarantine” organisms under the national legislation but also of important “nonquarantine” pathogens. The control of insect vectors plays an important role in the systemic diseases management, but it must be used together with other control measures as eradication of infected plants and use of certified propagation material. Apart from the control of the virus vector and the use of virus-free material, the development of virus-resistant cultivars appears to be the most effective approach to achieve control of plant viruses, especially for perennial crops that are more exposed to infection during their long life span. The use of resistant or tolerant cultivars and/or rootstocks could be potentially the most important aspect of virus disease management, especially in areas in which virus infections are endemic. The conventional breeding for virus-tolerant or resistant fruit tree cultivars using available germplasm is a long-term strategy, and the development and production of these cultivars may take decades, if successful. Genetic engineering allows the introduction of specific DNA sequences offering the opportunity to obtain existing fruit tree cultivars improved for the desired resistance trait. Unfortunately, genetic transformation of pome and stone fruits is still limited to few commercial genotypes. Research carried out and the new emerging biotechnological approaches to obtain fruit tree plants resistant or tolerant to viruses are discussed.
|Autori:||Barba, M.;Ilardi, V.;Pasquini, G.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Titolo:||Control of Pome and Stone Fruit Virus Diseases|
|Rivista:||ADVANCES IN VIRUS RESEARCH|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|