The use of alternative biocidal compounds to replace chemical pesticides after the Directive 2009/128/EChas raised renewed interest in the biofumigation technique. In particular, the defatted seed meals (DSM)derived from Brassicaceae plant tissues with high glucosinolate content represent an efficient practice tocontrol soil-born plant pathogens and pests that can be applied in synergy to catch crop green manures.For a wider and safer application of this technique, the impacts on non-target soil microorganisms andfree-living nematodes have to be investigated in more depth. In this pot-scale experiment a naturallynematode-infected soil was amended with a glucosinolate-containing DSM from Brassica carinata, a non-glucosinolate-containing DSM from sunflower and the metam-sodium fumigant. Tomato plants weretransplanted and checked for the presence of pests and/or pathogens and plant vigour. The responseof soil microbial communities was assessed by PCR-DGGE analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal 18SrRNA genes, whereas nematode indices were applied to assess their community structure 0, 10, 32 and 62days after the treatments. Significant shifts were observed among both bacterial and fungal communities,whereas various changes of nematode communities occurred depending on the nematode family. Similarchanges initially occurred in both bacterial and fungal community structure in response to DSM and VAPamendments, but after 62 days fungal communities were more strongly shaped by VAP fumigation thanbacteria. The non-biofumigant SUN treatment added organic matter into the soil inducing significantchanges in microbial communities, but it was not effective against Meloidogyne incognita root infestation.Although the free-living nematode structure was negatively influenced by all treatments, B. carinata DMSproved the best compromise between efficiency to control M. incognita and environmental impact. Theseresults confirmed the interesting potential of biofumigant DSM amendments as alternatives to chemicalfumigants for a more environment-friendly control of some soil-borne diseases.
|Autori:||Mocali S.;Landi S.;Curto G.;Dallavalle E.;Infantino A;, Colzi C.;d’Errico G.;Roversi P.F.;D’Avino L.;Lazzeri L.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Titolo:||Resilience of soil microbial and nematode communities afterbiofumigant treatment with defatted seed meals|
|Rivista:||INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|