As a consequence of global warming, additional areas will become ice-free and subject to weathering and soil formation. The most evident soil changes in the Alps will occur in proglacial areas where young soils will continuously develop due to glacier retreat. Little is known about the initial stages of weathering and soil formation, i.e. during the first decades of soil genesis. In this study, we investigated clay minerals formation during a time span 0–150 years in the proglacial area of Morteratsch (Swiss Alps). The soils developed on granitic till and were Lithic Leptosols. Mineralogical measurements of the clay (b2 μm) and fine silt fraction (2–32 μm) were carried out using XRD (X-ray Diffraction) and DRIFT (Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform). Fast formation and transformation mechanisms were measured in the clay fraction. The decreasing proportion of trioctahedral phases with time confirmed active chemical weathering. Since the start of soil formation, smectite was actively formed. Some smectite (low charge) and vermiculite (high charge) was however already present in the parent material. Main source of smectite formation was biotite, hornblende and probably plagioclase. Furthermore, irregularly and regularly interstratified clay minerals (mica–HIV or mica–vermiculite) were formed immediately after the start of moraine exposure to weathering. In addition, hydroxy-interlayered smectite (HIS) as a transitory weathering product from mica to smectite was detected. Furthermore, since the start of soil evolution, kaolinite was progressively formed. In the silt fraction, only little changes could be detected; i.e. some formation of an interstratified mica–HIV or mica–vermiculite phase. The detected clay mineral formation and transformation mechanisms within this short time span confirmed the high reactivity of freshly exposed sediments, even in a cryic environment.
|Autori:||Mavris, C.;Plotze, M.;Mirabella, A.;Giaccai, D.;Valboa, G.;Egli, M.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2011|
|Titolo:||Clay mineral evolution along a soil chronosequence in an Alpine proglacial area|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|