The objectives of this study was to evaluate the effects of protection from solar radiation and whole flaxseed supplementation on milk yield and milk fatty acid profile in lactating cows exposed to high ambient temperature. The experiment was conducted during summer and involved 40 ewes divided into 4 groups. The ewes were either exposed (not offered shade) or protected from solar radiation (offered shade). For each solar radiation treatment, ewes were supplemented with whole flaxseed or not. Milk samples from each ewe were collected at the morning and afternoon milking every week, and analyzed for pH, total protein, casein, fat, and lactose content, somatic cell count, and renneting parameters (clotting time, rate of clot formation, and clot firmness after 30 min). At the beginning of the experiment, and then at d 23 and 44, milk samples were analyzed for milk fatty acids using gas chromatography. Flaxseed supplementation significantly increased milk yield, fat, protein, and casein yields, and somatic cell count, and increased fat and lactose contents of milk. A decrease of saturated fatty acids from C6:0 to C16:0 and an increase of C18:1 trans-11 and C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 was observed in milk from flaxseed-supplemented cows. Flaxseed supplementation decreased saturated fatty acids content and increased total monounsaturated fatty acids content, the total content of isomers of conjugated linoleic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acids content in milk. Flaxseed also increased the -linolenic acid content of milk. As a result, milk from supplemented groups showed an increase in n-3 fatty acid content. Flaxseed supplementation decreased short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids, and increased long-chain fatty acid content of milk. On average, flaxseed supplementation increased the C18:2 cis-9,trans-11/C18:1 trans-11 Δ9-desaturase index starting from d 23 of the experiment, in correspondence with the highest C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 content of milk from flaxseed-supplemented ewes. Flaxseed decreased atherogenic and thrombogenic indices of milk. Protection from solar radiation during summer did not improve yield and composition of ewe milk. Nevertheless, milk from ewes exposed to solar radiation showed decreased long-chain fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents, and in particular, decreased vaccenic acid, rumenic acid and total conjugated linoleic acid contents.
|Autori:||Caroprese, M.;Albenzio, M.;Bruno, A.;Fedele, V.;Santillo, A.;Sevi, A.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2011|
|Titolo:||Effect of solar radiation and flax seed supplementation on milk production and fatty acid profile of lactating ewes under high ambient temperature|
|Rivista:||JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|